Knoxspark Forever Revisited

This is a follow-up post about the (once) neglected and forgotten wild-park art project, Regeneration (2000) by Hilary Gilligan, Martina Coyle and Pauline O’Connell, at Knoxspark, Co. Sligo. You can read my original piece from 2017 here.


This original piece and a Facebook album of photographs I’ve been taking of the park throughout the year, brought the park’s situation to the attention of a local community group, Ballisodare Community Council. Since then they organised a public event during Heritage Week (26/8/18) and invited myself and the archaeologist, Eamonn P. Kelly, to give a guided tour of the site (see pic above). This was very well attended and I learnt that most of the local people present didn’t even know the park existed. Eamonn P. Kelly spoke about the sites likely Viking past and I explained the more recent history of the art project and the parks disuse.  It was quite amazing for me to see the park so full of people, a big difference from that first lonely day I accidentally found it in early 2017.

After this event the same group successfully applied for funding to improve access, clear pathways, clean the sculptures, fix the ‘Pillow Stone’ and have signage installed. Since January 2019 this has all been put into place and the park was re-opened with a brand new additional entrance from the Ballisodare to Collooney road. You can scroll down to see a few photos from a snowy visit I made to the park just after it was reopened. My thanks to Ballisodare Community Council for all of their hard work. If you can, please visit in person.

I was also invited to write a piece about Knoxspark, The Afterlife of Public Artworks, for The Visual Artists News Sheet (Nov/Dec 2017) and through this discovered a lot more background information about the project. More recently I accidentally discovered that since 2010 there has been a Geocache site in the park, which itself has brought about 200 visitors to the park, which shows it wasn’t as unknown as I had thought!

Stephen Rennicks






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A World of Shared Understanding

42254673_2145305605503495_2210070538502537216_nThis was work from a group show, Connection Project, which was launched on Culture Night 2018 in Sligo. The exhibition space was the former premises of Happy Hobbies, a craft shop that we were asked to respond to. More details about the exhibition can be read here. The banners were made in collaboration with my mother, Leona. Below is the text I wrote to accompany. 

A World of Shared Understanding

For this project I felt drawn to the philosophy behind crafting, the homemade and D.I.Y. aspect and how empowering that sense of shared understanding seems today. During the heyday of Happy Hobbies, this was a time when many people would have been similarly able to service and fix their own cars, take on improvement projects around the home and grow some of their own food. While this of course does still happen, it has become much less common for a myriad of reasons.


Visiting the former premises and speaking with its owner, Mary Foley, reminded me of the everyday crafting my Mother and Grandmother would have done as I was growing up. They would be knitting jumpers, repairing and altering clothes, making dresses from patterns, stitching rugs and doing crochet and embroidery for decoration. In primary school I also learned the rudiments of a number of crafts, such as knitting, rug making and sewing. While all types of crafting have experienced a revival of interest thanks to the Internet, during the 1970s and 80s and before, this was still a common and necessary activity.

aKQQ1bnQAt this time, people had more time to themselves, less money and cheap, mass produced goods were not as prevalent as they are today. It was a time when if something was broken or no longer of use, it was still within people’s grasp to fix or adapt it; when we didn’t yet largely depend on main dealers, experts and professionals to do often quite simple things for us. Before ‘Reduce, Reuse, Recycle’ became an environmental slogan, this was everyday life, when nothing was wasted. Before online instructional videos there was also a reason to tap into the shared knowledge of family, friends and members of the community, to share their know-how. Before popular concepts of mindfulness and being in the moment, crafting could provide this outlet as well.

Lastly, I thought it would be fitting to collaborate with my Mother on this work about shared understanding.


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The Curfew Tower is Many Things/32 Books 32 Counties

20841054_1655180877849306_4120856738095252059_nThe Curfew Tower is Many Things is a book. It was written by poets and writers in The Curfew Tower in Cushendall. Co. Antrim during 2014 (more details here). Over five days in June 2017, 32 copies of this book were left on the island of Ireland, one in each county, by Bill Drummond. The poet Stephen Sexton accompanied him and added a unique handwritten poem on two blank pages that were allotted to him in each of these 32 copies. Conor Garrett was also present and he produced a 30 minute radio programme to document their journey, which was broadcast on BBC Radio 4 on 13th August 2017 (listen here) and there is a version here with an extended introduction as well. This programme revealed some but not all of these locations (details below). You can read more about the background to the book here.

I was always a fan of The KLF/The Justified Ancients of Mu Mu and continue to enjoy what Bill Drummond and Jimmy Cauty do individually and together as artists today. In 2016 I even revisited an unfinished road movie of theirs for an art project of my own, Searching for The White Room. I was therefore very interested to listen to this radio show and wondered where the book in my home county of Sligo might be.

In the programme, when they get here they go to a train station and leave it in the lost and found. At this stage I wasn’t sure when this had all happened, if the book might still be there or would if it be possible for me just to walk in and claim it etc.  I wasn’t even sure if it was Sligo town station, just that they had been in the town earlier going by the programme. The next day after the broadcast was a Monday and I had something to do in town anyway so I went in to try and get the book as well. I did feel kind of hopeful about the outcome but wasn’t sure how to go about explaining the whole thing or how understanding the person in charge might be.

I parked my car and walked into the station, it was quiet. I couldn’t see a ticket window to ask at but to my right and around a corner I found that there was actually a whole room for lost property. It was note outside explaining to ring the bell for a staff member. I was about to do this when I walked closer and saw there was a man already behind the desk about my own age. So I went in, took a deep breath and just asked him if there was a book there by that name and explained that someone else would have left it there. I was trying to keep it simple.

Luckily he was very helpful and showed me where the lost books were on the shelf. I couldn’t see it in the small pile of about five or six books. I looked in the other shelves too but they were mostly filled with what looked to be bundled up coats and other clothes. I started to tell him the story of the book and that an artist called Bill Drummond and a poet had left a copy of this book in every county in the country a while ago. I still didn’t go into too much detail.

It was a bit depressing, I had hoped to find the book easily enough but it was not looking good. I had another look and even opened an Eason’s bag that had some novel inside. I was really about to go when I spied the edge of a small book on a top shelf on his side of the desk. I thought he had probably already checked it himself while we had both been searching and that it didn’t look big enough to be the book anyway. I expected it would be a notebook or something. I leaned over and pulled it down in some desperation. I couldn’t believe it when I saw and read the cover.  This was it, ‘The Curfew Tower is Many Things’, with a little drawing of the tower. I opened it at random and quickly found the handwritten poem by Stephen Sexton and explained to him that this was done in all the books and told him more about the project. He wanted me to take it but I still asked him what would happen to the book if I didn’t. He said that they are only supposed to keep things for two months and then they are thrown out. Later I  noticed from the date of the poem that the book had been there nearly two months already. I shook his hand and thanked him again and walked out with my prize. I then sat in my car and read it through.

20842066_1655180731182654_6240134389095420713_nI had already decided that I would donate the book, if I got it, to Sligo Library Services. I will ask my friend who works for them about this (this is now done but I’m told it will take time to register it on the system, I will add link once this happens). It will soon be possible to order and borrow the book from any library in the county.

As you can see from the list I made below, it will be pretty difficult to locate the rest of the books but on the off chance that you are reading this and have tracked one down or already have a copy, please write an account of how you located it and email a photo of the handwritten poem to me at rennicksstephen (@) eircom (dot) net . It would be great if you could somehow make it publicly available as well, if it is not already. I will share the details here. I’ve been using the hashtag #32curfewbooks Let’s work together and find these books!

Books are ever more important in the age of the internet, finding and reading these will be worth the effort.


Toby Berryman, who is just 13 has been very diligent in searching for the books online and by phone from England. He made contact with the Tattoo Parlour in Co. Westmeath and they have posted him their copy. The two images below are the book as it looked in their premises and the poem/art which was inside.

book in tattoo parlour


Toby also contacted Kerry Airport by phone and they are in the process of posting him their copy (since then they have decided to donate it to a local library). I may not be able to get a photo of the poem but once the book appears on the online ordering system I will add the link here. He even somehow tracked down by the guesthouse owner called Peter in Co. Louth who will be holding onto the book to show guests but will be sending him a picture of the poem. He also helped fill in a few more details for the list below.

Matt Gardner found the book in the Diamond Bar in Tullaghan, Co. Leitrim. I will include his own account here soon. The book remains in the bar to be requested by anyone who wishes to read it. The poem is below.


The first book was left just after the journey began at the Community Development Office in Broughshane, Co. Antrim. I emailed them for a scan of the poem and they kindly obliged, see below.


I will keep updating this page as new information comes in, let’s keep searching!

  1. Community Development Office, Broughshane, Co. Antrim (The staff here sent me a scan of the poem. The book remains there to be read). 

  2. Kurdish or more likely a Turkish Barber, Derry, Co. Derry (the staff member recipient was from Syria) Both of the town’s Turkish Barbers were contacted by Toby Berryman and neither have it. 

  3. Nail Bar, Omagh, Co. Tyrone

  4. With the driver of a yellow bus in Co. Fermanagh

  5. Co. Donegal (not revealed)

  6. Diamond Bar, Tullaghan, Co. Leitrim (ask for Concepta) (Found by Matt Gardner, image above. The book remains behind the bar for anyone to read.)

  7. Lost & Found, Train Station, Sligo town, Co. Sligo (Found, see above for details and image)

  8. B&B, Co. Mayo

  9. Co. Galway (not revealed)

  10. Co. Clare (not revealed)

  11. Polish Supermarket, Co. Tipperary

  12. Arrivals Lounge, Kerry Airport, Co. Kerry (Located by Toby Berryman, Kerry Airport have reportedly donated the book to a local library.)

  13. Job Centre, Co. Limerick (awaiting email response, if the right one)

  14. On the street, Co. Cork

  15. Hotel bookcase, Co. Waterford

  16. Co. Kilkenny (not revealed)

  17. Co. Wexford (not revealed)

  18. Primary School, Co. Offaly

  19. Strawberry Seller, Co. Carlow

  20. Charlie Flanagan Constituency Office, Co. Laois (awaiting email response)

  21. Co. Wicklow (not revealed)

  22. Dublin Airport Church, Co. Dublin (my email to Dublin Airport got forwarded to their Lost Property section, which replied, We have been through a check of our lost property and unfortunately your lost book “The Curfew Tower is Many Things” has not been handed into our office. Toby contacted Father Desmond and he said, “No book was left behind or handed in the Church back in June or any other time.”

  23. Co. Meath (not revealed)

  24. Weaving Workshop, Co. Kildare

  25. Angel Art, Tattoo Parlour, Mullingar, Co. Westmeath  (Found by Toby Berryman, image of poem above)

  26. A Boatman, Co. Roscommon

  27. Man on bicycle, Co. Longford

  28. 3 stonemasons in graveyard, Co. Cavan

  29. Owner of parrot, a Pub in Co. Monaghan

  30. Guesthouse owner called Peter, Co. Louth (Located by Toby Berryman, image of poem and location details to follow)

  31. Co. Armagh (not revealed)

  32. Thrown in a river, Co. Down

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Knoxspark Forever: After Regeneration

KNOXSPARK FOREVER3Knoxspark Forever/After Regeneration

Revisiting and responding to the public art project, Regeneration (2000), by Martina Coyle, Hilary Gilligan and Pauline O’Connell at Knoxspark, Co. Sligo.

If you are going towards Sligo on the N4 Dual Carriageway, after the Collooney roundabout and after the road bends and cuts through a small tree-lined mound, get ready to pull in at a lay-by. You might, as I did the first time, have to squeeze pass a speed detection van that is sometimes parked here, then you just have to climb over a gate to get into a field. I had originally planned to come here to quickly investigate what I took to be the remains of a stone circle, that if you are very eagle eyed you can spot from the road. Instead I got a big surprise when I found an orientation stone that quickly identified that what looked to me like a field of sheep and rushes was actually a park designed by artists for a project 17 years ago called Regeneration.

I have been living in the north-west of Ireland since 2005 and have been driving this road regularly and had heard nothing about this project until now. However, thanks to the orientation stone I searched the Internet later that day and discovered more about it. On this first visit I only had time to find just one of the two stone benches and also didn’t realise I could cross under the road bridge to the other half of the site, where the other bench and orientation stone are placed, along with an eight tonne ‘Pillow Stone’ and more native tree planting.monolith2However, I could quickly see that there are issues surrounding accessibility, maintenance and promotion of what appears to be a very under used but potentially valuable public amenity, especially to the people of nearby Ballisodare and Collooney. There is now a flock of sheep being kept here, which perhaps indicates that ownership of the land has changed, but if this is the case there is no sign to show that the land is now private (a right of way could have been established). I have since found out that the land still belongs to Sligo Co. Co. and the land is rented to a sheep farmer but it is still open for the public to walk here. While the sheep are doing a useful job at keeping the grass low, obviously it would no longer be suitable for people walking dogs and only the able bodied can climb over the gates to gain access. One of the three stones from the ‘Pillow Stone’ is missing and the benches need to be weeded, rushes cut regularly etc at the very least. While there is a standard picnic/rest area sign just before you get to each of the lay-bys (which in my opinion are placed far too late to safely pull in unless you are already aware of them) there is nothing to announce Knoxspark and indicate it as a place for walking. The east-side of the park is marred by two over-head electric cables and numerous utility poles (which I have since learned were always there, on this very contested site). orientation stoneI love what the artists did here, all of the stonework is beautiful, the sensitivity they have shown to the landscape and their collective vision to see the project through in collaboration with the local community and wildlife and archaeological experts is still very evident and appears to have been very thorough (link to background of project below). I made contact with one of the artists, Pauline O’Connell, to try and find out more about the park’s current situation and it appears there was a 10 year management contract with Sligo Co. Co., which appears to have come to an end at some unknown time. As the project was originally funded through the Department of the Environment and Local Government, the National Roads Authority Per Cent for Art Scheme and the European Cohesion fund, we all own it and have every right to use it and have a say in its future. I’ve come to really like the park and don’t think it deserves to be left as it is and hope that by bringing some attention to it again this might be a small start towards its second and hopefully final regeneration or be just another naive (place in which to) dream.oxbow benchI would recommend going to the Sligo Arts Office webpage and reading the original catalogue for the wider project, Placing Art, that Regeneration was a part of (pages 49-60). This archived news story contains what looks to be a press release about the launch. I had originally actually spied not the remains of a stone circle but a promontory fort from the road, as this site is also very rich in archaeology according to this excavation report. Also, Eamon P. Kelly, Keeper of Irish Antiquities at the National Museum of Ireland has stated that, “I would say that Knoxspark is not just a monument of national importance but of considerable international importance,” due to his theory that it was at one time a Viking stronghold. Here is a section by Dr. Gavin Murphy from Placing Art that explains some of what Regeneration set out to achieve…

‘The project aims to regenerate a site in the town-land of Knoxspark. The site is a large expanse of land divided by the N4 dual carriageway. The idea of three artists, from diverse backgrounds, to collaborate on a venture of this kind is perhaps unique in Ireland. It is unique in that it not only sets a precedent with its collaborative element, which extends from the three artists to the teams of workers, experts and local participants involved, but that the nature of the intervention questions what we normally hold to be art.

The challenge to invigorate the area centres on the development of a public path through the site. Various artistic features and utilities have been added to enhance the walking experience. Two large orientation stones placed on sites at dual entrance points of the path open the viewer to various aspects of interest along the way. Seating, made from semi-honed fossilised limestone, has been added to enhance the enjoyment of views to Union Wood and the Knocknarea Mountain. An eight tonne, limestone ‘pillow stone’ has also been placed near the raised mound and indigenous trees and shrubs are now to be planted to enrich the terrain.

These aspects fulfil the utilitarian demands of the project. However, Regeneration is grounded by a weightier ethos. Its value is rooted in a sensitivity to the locale. To undertake the walk is to be opened to matters of archaeology, ecology, aesthetics and the community. Including these into the mindful drift of a stroll binds these wider considerations to disparate elements of everyday life.

To work Regeneration into this history is a delicate matter. The site demands solemnity and artistic intervention runs the risk of undermining such reverence. The key, for the three collaborating artists, lay in adopting an understated approach to art-making. Several engravings on the orientation stones alert the visitor to the archaeological significance lying beneath their feet. The ‘pillow stone’, a large boulder with a step cut into it, invites the visitor to engage with the site. Stepping up, the visitor can lie back on the boulder with their head cushioned in three water rolled stones that are set onto it. Lying in an east-west position, the visitor mirrors the orientation of the burials below. This helps tint the view of the Union Rock with knowledge of the initial significance of pillow stones. To adopt this low-key approach to the site is less a matter of limiting intervention than of understanding the gravity of the slightest adjustment to the locale.

Regeneration seeks to nurture ecological awareness, archaeological significance and community spirit through art. Each decision – whether it be to echo the contour of the river in the shapes cut out of the oxbow seats or encouraging imaginative flights as viewer’s lay their head upon the pillow stones – is grounded in this principle. The site will take many years for the planting to flourish fully. This extends the life of this artwork. In the end, Regeneration, is a matter of participation. To walk this site is to be enveloped in a locale sodden with history. It is to be treated to a journey where an art with its low-key aesthetic seeps quietly through the veins. To return again and again to this locale enables one to set personal affairs against minor shifts of a grander natural force.’bench west2For me there is an obvious question to ask; as beautiful, environmentally and archaeologically rich as this location is, having a park beside a busy dual-carriageway was always going to come with major noise problems. It is far from peaceful here and while trees were meant to soak up much of the noise this is not happening, certainly not in winter or even in summer. It is possible that not all of the tree planting occurred or was successful, there was also supposed to be a pond in the original plan, which is not here. These problems are not insurmountable however and with clever planning could yet be fixed to some degree. It’s not clear to me if the park was ever fully accessible to all, promoted and widely used. There may have once been access to the park from Ballisodare at a point on the old Sligo/Dublin road but there is no designated parking, no signage, two gates to climb and the route under the railway line floods if there is much rain. If these things were (quite easily I think) put right, then this route, in my opinion, would be the safest way for locals to access the park, as from the lay-by its often tricky to get back into the fast flowing traffic on the N4. union rock viewI have returned to the park many times and have yet to meet anyone there, those I see pulled into the lay-bys are usually using their phones. Knoxspark on any given day is a different experience and not everyone will care how it was originally planned or if it is fully accessible or not. A part of me likes how secret it has become but then I think of all the public money, the importance of the site and the effort of the artists, the local community etc. If Knoxspark is ever to have a chance at becoming what it was originally envisioned to be, it’s important that more people know it exists, experience it for themselves and come to their own conclusions about it and take action. pillow stoneI am realistic to know that not all public art projects, especially one as ambitious as this, can always be maintained and managed indefinitely. 17 years is a longtime and in many ways we are now living in a very different country and world since this project was first commissioned. By a strange coincidence, 5 days before the park’s official opening, ‘911’ happened, but more relevant to the park’s current situation could be the economic crash of 2008 and that by 2014 the debt of Sligo Co. Co. was estimated to be €120 million, according to this article. At this stage I have yet to contact anyone in the council directly about it as I want this piece to capture how I felt on discovering the site (as hopefully many more will do) and am using it as a way to gauge public awareness and gather opinion.orientation stoneeastMy own feeling is, these stone interventions, tree planting etc aren’t going anywhere and Knoxspark itself as a piece of land is here forever, so it’s not too late to put this right. Until some future date when it might be possible for the council to relaunch the park, raising awareness of its existence and beginning to use it again (even in a limited fashion) could be a first step towards this. If anyone knows more about the current situation of Knoxspark and Regeneration, or its history that I have missed, please get in touch. I am very open to helping with any future efforts which may arise to renew the park . oxbow thinking3On a number of visits I sat on the benches and one day climbed up to Union Rock to write the following edited notes as my main artistic response to Regeneration and Knoxspark. 

Everywhere is an ancient landscape, while Knoxspark might be no more special than any piece of ground, it does have its own unique history and perhaps, for those who are sensitive to these things, its own energy or feeling.

Only because the townland of Knoxspark was going to be upturned and cut in two by an extension of the N4 were artists ever invited to ‘regenerate’ this location. Their now truly wild park had always been designed for nature to complete but human nature has inevitably brought its own influence to bear here as well.

However, once you know that the park still exists, it remains open for the public to use and walk its ground. You can even slip unseen under the road itself and still connect with the whole site as you explore this place which lies so close to modernity yet is so far removed from that way of life. 

Even with the native tree planting it currently still looks to the casual eye like nothing more than a rushy  field. Coming on one of the benches and marvelling at its beauty and design for the first time was like discovering the Monolith on a morning stroll. Despite the problems there is still a very positive bold artistic vision on display here and on one level Knoxspark could be viewed as a secret site of artistic and cultural resistance in the face of bureaucracy, funding, public indifference and encroaching nature. In the same way that its incredibly rich archaeology lies long buried underground, so do far more recent cultural artefacts lie forgotten here as well This is a patient place, waiting to be discovered and rediscovered.

Its two benches invite us to sit and contemplate the slowly moving river, caught in its oxbow bend. Perhaps this can trigger our own thoughts to slow down and become more concentrated? Then to rise and walk along this curve and come to rest again. Perhaps to appreciate anew how we fit into this place or check if anything inside of us has already shifted as we listen again to the sounds of nature and traffic.

I found Knoxpark to behave like a changeling, on a chilly overcast day in March my photos made it look like the deserted and neglected place it has become but on a warm sunny day in May it not only looked like heaven, if the road was not too busy, it could even feel like it too.

While Knoxspark as a location would have gone on quite nicely without any interventions, regeneration is an ongoing process. Only by using this place can it stay alive and evolve as a particular location distinct from others. Not as any one person or group sees fit but how many conflicting people, forces and influences dictate as time passes. To have any effect we must all stake our own individual claims on this public amenity.

The Pillow Stone faces Union Rock, Knoxspark as viewed from that high, birdlike vantage point, can be seen as one small patch on the landscape, just a part of the wider fabric of all that currently surrounds it. A patch of green with a reflecting river along its edge where cars, vans, trucks and buses move quickly through, creating a constant airy drone that reaches even here.

Stephen Rennicks



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